British Etiquettes and Customs

Meeting and Greeting

  • The handshake is the common form of greeting.
  • Avoid prolonged eye contact as it makes people feel uncomfortable.


Gift Giving Etiquette

  • The British exchange gifts between family members and close friends for birthdays and Christmas.
  • The gift needs not be expensive, but it should usually demonstrate an attempt to find something that related to the recipient’s interests.
  • If invited to someone’s home, it is normal to take along a box of good chocolates, a good bottle of wine or flowers.
  • Gifts are opened when received.


Dining Etiquette

  • Unlike other Europeans, the British enjoy entertaining people at their homes.
  • Although the British value punctuality, you may arrive 10-15 minutes later than invited to dinner. However, if it is at a restaurant, be on time !
  • Table manners are continental, i.e. the fork is held in the left hand and the knife in the right while eating.
  • The fork is held tines down so food is scooped on to the back of the fork. This is a skill that takes time to master.
  • Remain standing until invited to sit down. You may be shown to a particular seat.
  • Do not rest your elbows on the table.
  • If you have not finished eating, cross your knife and fork on your plate with the fork over the knife.
  • Indicate you have finished eating by laying your knife and fork parallel across the right side of your plate.
  • Toasts are given at formal meals.
  • When in a pub, it is common practice to pay for a round of drinks for everyone in your group.
  • If invited to a meal at a restaurant, the person extending the invitation usually pays. Do not argue about the check; simply reciprocate at a later time.

Poetic Analysis of WINTER by William Shakespeare

Bonjour ! Vous allez trouver ci-dessous un analyse poétique de la poésie Winter par William Shakespeare fait lorsque j’étais encore au 3e semestre. Profitez-en et soyez-en tous inspirés !


Winter
By William Shakespeare
When icicles hang by the wall,
And Dick the shepherd blows his nail,
And Tom bears logs into the hall,
And milk comes frozen home in pail,
When blood is nipp’d and ways be foul,
Then nightly sings the staring owl,
Tu-whit;
Tu-who, a merry note,
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot.
When all aloud the wind doth blow,
And coughing drowns the parson’s saw,
And birds sit brooding in the snow,
And Marion’s nose looks red and raw,
When roasted crabs hiss in the bowl,
Then nightly sings the staring owl,
Tu-whit;
Tu-who, a merry note,
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot.
ANALYSIS 1. THE RHYTHM.
     /      __       __       /  __  __
When icicles hang | by the wall,                          = Dactylic Dimeter
    /     __       /        /              /     __  __
And Dick | the shepherd | blows his nail,            = Trahaic | Spondaic | Dactylic
    /     __        /       /         /   __  __
And Tom | bears logs | into the hall,                    = Trahaic | Spondaic | Dactylic
    /    __           /        __     __      __   /
And milk | comes frozen home | in pail,              = Trahaic | Dactylic | Iambic
    /       __      __     /         /     __       /   __
When blood | is nipp’d | and ways | be foul,       = Trahaic | Iambic | Trahaic Dimeter
    /       __       __     __    __        /
Then nightly sings | the staring owl,                    = Dactylic | Anapestic
  /      /        /     /        /   __     __
Tu-whit; | Tu-who, | a merry note,                       = Spondaic Dimeter | Dactylic
     /       __       __      __    /        /    __
While greasy Joan | doth keel | the pot.               = Dactylic | Iambic | Spondaic
     /    __    __       /        /        /    __                          
When all aloud | the wind | doth blow,                              = Dactylic | Spondaic | Trahaic
    /      __            __         /      __       ___
And coughing drowns | the parson’s saw,          = Dactylic Dimeter 
  __      /        /        /           /   __  ___
And birds | sit brooding | in the snow,                = Iambic | Spondaic | Dactylic
    /        __       __         /       /      /     __
And Marion’s nose | looks red | and raw,           = Dactylic | Spondaic | Trahaic
     /      __        __         /   /       /    ___
When roasted crabs | hiss in | the bowl,              = Dactylic | Spondaic | Trahaic
  __      __         /        /    ___     ___
Then nightly sings | the staring owl,                    = Anapestic | Dactylic
  /     /         /     /        /   __      __
Tu-whit; | Tu-who, | a merry note,                       = Spondaic Dimeter | Dactylic
     /      __       __       __     /       /    __
While greasy Joan | doth keel | the pot.               = Dactylic | Iambic | Trahaic
ANALYSIS 2. THE FORMS.
Ø  General Form
The Winter poetry by William Shakespeare is a Pastoral poetry for it represents the situation in a village during winter in an old time.
When icicles hang by the wall,  
And Dick the shepherd blows his nail,
And Tom bears logs into the hall,  
And milk comes frozen home in pail,  
When blood is nipp’d, and ways be foul,
Then nightly sings the staring owl, 
To-whit! To-who!—a merry note,  
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot.  
 
When all aloud the wind doe blow,
And coughing drowns the parson’s saw,  
And birds sit brooding in the snow,  
And Marian’s nose looks red and raw,  
When roasted crabs hiss in the bowl,  
Then nightly sings the staring owl,
To-whit! To-who!—a merry note,  
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot.
Ø  Usage Form
The Winter poetry by William Shakespeare is a Shakespearian sonnet for it is composed by William Shakespeare himself and it has abab, cdcd rhymes and an ee couplet.
When icicles hang by the wall,                              (a)
And Dick the shepherd blows his nail,                  (b)
And Tom bears logs into the hall,                         (a)
And milk comes frozen home in pail,                    (b)
When blood is nipp’d, and ways be foul,
Then nightly sings the staring owl, 
To-whit! To-who!—a merry note,                         (e)
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot.                     (e)
 
When all aloud the wind doe blow,                       (c)
And coughing drowns the parson’s saw,               (d)
And birds sit brooding in the snow,                       (c)
And Marian’s nose looks red and raw,                  (d)
When roasted crabs hiss in the bowl,  
Then nightly sings the staring owl,
To-whit! To-who!—a merry note,                         (e)
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot                      (e)
Ø  Rhyme Form
The Winter poetry by William Shakespeare is a rhyme-ended form for it has a standard rhyme abab and cdcd.
When icicles hang by the wall,                              (a)
And Dick the shepherd blows his nail,                  (b)
And Tom bears logs into the hall,                         (a)
And milk comes frozen home in pail,                    (b)
When blood is nipp’d, and ways be foul,
Then nightly sings the staring owl, 
To-whit! To-who!—a merry note,                         (e)
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot.                     (e)
 
When all aloud the wind doe blow,                       (c)
And coughing drowns the parson’s saw,               (d)
And birds sit brooding in the snow,                       (c)
And Marian’s nose looks red and raw,                  (d)
When roasted crabs hiss in the bowl,  
Then nightly sings the staring owl,
To-whit! To-who!—a merry note,                         (e)
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot                      (e)
ANALYSIS 3. STYLES.
Ø  Dictions
·         The diction that Shakespeare uses in this poetry is Concrete.
·         Unusual words
          Colloquialisms: nipp’d.
          Archaism: Tu-whit, Tu-who, Doth.
Ø  Grammar
v  When blood is nipp’d and ways be foul.
Instead of writing it fully as nipped and instead of using the to be are, Shakespeare abreviates into nipp’dand uses only be as the to be of ways to describe that the comparison between hardworking and the failure of the work itself is not balanced in a village with a winter for everything is covered by thick snow.
v  Then nightly sings the staring owl.
Shakespeare wants to emphasize that the staring owl sings only in the night for all the villagers must have finished doing their activities by then.
v  While greasy Joan doth keel the pot.
Shakespeare wrote the verse above like that for it is one of the verses of the song sung by the staring owl.
v  When all aloud the wind doth blow.
Shakespeare intends to describe how hard the wind that a doe blows, either from its nostrils or from its mouth, must be during winter.
ANALYSIS 4. CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS
v  When blood is nipp’d and ways be foul.
Blood represents the spirit of hardworking of the villagers. Nipp’dwhich is the abreviation of Nippedrepresents the “going out” activitiy of the burning spirit of hardworking. Ways represents the alternatives that the villagers have in working during winter.
v  Then nightly sings the staring owl.
The staring owl represents a villager who is the most favorite singer in the whole village because of his or her melodious voice.  
v  While greasy Joan doth keel the pot.
Keel the pothere means cool the contents of the pot by stirring or pouring in something cold.
v  When all aloud the wind doth blow.

Doth here represents a doe, a kind of deers that is usually found during winter.

Only Bali? There’s Still More!

Bonjour, bonjour ! Voici l’un des essais que j’ai écrits pour mon cours de Rédaction des Essais au 3e semestre. Profites-en et soyez-en tous inspirés de visiter mon magnifiquement beau pays Indonésien ! 🙂

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Only Bali? There’s Still More!
            Nowadays, when we approach a foreigner and ask what he or she knows about Indonesia, most likely he or she will answer “Bali”. When we ask a foreigner in Indonesia the vacation spot he or she knows, he or she will probably answer “Bali” as well. It often seems that it is only Bali itself which captivates people the best in Indonesia. When they are looking for a beautiful beach, a relaxing sunbathing, historical temples and exotic food, they will most likely go to Bali. However, there are still other paradise islands in Indonesia with unforgetable experiences to experience outside Bali.
 
The Senggigi Beach
       If it is nature that we are looking for, Lombok is a perfect destination. Senggigi beach, the most beautiful beach, guarantees all pleasures. We can stay in a nice wooden cottage where an inspiring seaview, a breathtaking beach, white sand, clean sea and a blue sky are just outside our doorstep. Moreover, a stroll in the Lomboknese twilight has always been a relaxing and entertaining experience. We can meet Sasak people, the original people of Lombok, taste the traditional food, shop for souvenirs and enjoy a night life ala Lombok.
             
Walking over a rainforest in Borneo.
For us with a huge desire for adventures, Borneo is the right place. All its dense jungles will welcome warmly those wishing to experience and live a jungle life. We can do it either in our own way or through a jungle agent. From camping and enjoying a bonfire at night, learning to survive in the density to encountering chrocodiles, aligators, snakes, lizards and other wild jungle creatures, no jungle experiences can be better than Borneo’s.  
           One Thousand Island and Bunaken Underwater Sea Garden in Maluku are never to be missed either. A wide variety of aquatic experiences are all ours to choose. In the morning, let our body relax with a sea swimming or satisfy our curiosity by snorkling to the depth and witnessing a beyond-imagination  underwater view. Nothing can be better than walking along the seashore in the evening while enjoying the warm magnificent sunset. As night approaches, taste the Maluku seafood in traditional restaurants and feel the Maluku art in night life.
        All those three islands above are never to be missed to witness the beauty of Indonesia in person. Those aiming for a magnificent sea, Lombok invites us warmly to drop over. For sensations of wild and dense jungle life, no other islands can be better other than Borneo. Never ever give up our underwater life-seeing dream before we see what Maluku has got under its sea. Don’t forget to bring along our camera and video camera and let it  cherish each of our gold-dust experiences. So, Bali may be a paradise, but see what other paradise islands have got inside. 

Gender Ideology in ‘The Diary of Adam and Eve’ by Mark Twain

Paramita Ayuningtyas, S.Hum., M.Hum.
Department of English, Faculty of Language and Culture, Bina Nusantara University

                               Kemanggisan Ilir III No. 45, Palmerah, West Jakarta, 11480

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-xcWitITswdA/UMYq3gn1X-I/AAAAAAAAAz8/Y669xffaFIs/s1600/Diaries+of+Adam+and+Eve.jpg
After analyzing the image of Adam and Eve, next I am going to study further about gender
ideology behind The Diary of Adam and Eve by seeing the context when it was written. Through Eve,
it can be seen how Twain made an effort to break the gender boundary by giving some ‘masculine’
traits to her. She is depicted as a woman who has the brain and the voice. However, it does not mean
that this new interpretation is clean from patriarchal values that reduce women with feminine attributes
(that are considered inferior). All of Eve’s potentials are used for Adam’s sake. She also tries to gain
respect from Adam, which directly means she considers Adam as someone superior. I read this as the
representation of women whose existence needs an approval from men. Compared with Eve’s
ambiguous and complex characterization, Adam looks stereotypically masculine from his independent,
pragmatic and cold attitude. The Diary of Adam and Eve has given a new version of the figures of
Adam and Eve, but Twain’s description about the two characters is still not free from patriarchal
values that put men on the top of the hierarchy. It is related with the social order when the novel was
written.

As written by Budianta, literature also constructs, deconstructs and reconstructs ideology
(Budianta, 1998: 8). To paraphrase, a work of literature cannot be taken from its social context. In
sociology of literature, sometimes an author (consciously or not) cannot be independent from the
values of society in which he/she lives. Based on that statement, I am going to see how social context
takes a part in constructing the characters of Adam and Eve.
Twain started writing Extract from Adam’s Diary in 1893 and Eve’s Diary in 1903. During the
era, the conservative Victorian values still existed in English society and in American society as well,
although in different levels. Even though in early 20th century women were already allowed to go to
college and to work outside, gender discrimination still could be found in society. Women (and also
children) had to work for twelve hours in factories with a bad condition. In law, rules made by men
still placed women in the inferior position. Women were allowed to vote in 1920, years and years after
the independence of America. This gender injustice could exist because of patriarchal norms that
consider men more competent than women in every aspect of life.
In traditional societies, men are the breadwinners, while women take care of the house and the
children. This role division is based on the popular opinion that men are more active and stronger so
that they can manage the public life, while women with all of their weaknesses are spatially limited in
their domestic world. This division also appears in The Diary of Adam and Eve, especially when
Adam and Eve fall from paradise. As a man, Adam does his task as a breadwinner by hunting. Eve
who confesses as Adam’s wife (even though Adam never says that he is Eve’s husband) does her
domestic chores, to babysit Cain and Abel. In textual level, the world of Adam and Eve should have
been clean from patriarchal-minded society, yet this sex-based role division is already there. In other
words, Twain still believed that as something natural and it does not need any reconstruction or
deconstruction.
Besides the content, the form of the diary can also be analyzed to find the patriarchal gender
ideology behind it. In Adam’s diary, there are four passages about the downfall of humankind from
paradise, including the event when Eve eats the fruit. It is when they finally realize their nudity and
start to feel awkward in front of each other:

Me Connaître Mieux


Alexander Bryant Iwo was born on the Halloween Day in 1992 in Jakarta, Indonesia. Born from Chinese-Indonesian parents, Iwo (Sandy and Andy are also allowed) earned his Bachelor degree in English Literature at Bina Nusantara University, the Best Private University across Indonesia. A legions of people count in his life, chiefly his Mum (without whom he would have chosen another department), his Auntie Rina (without whom he would have been ‘Englishly’ lost), his lecturers Mrs Retnowati (whose 50 in his mid-term paper has made him who he is today) and Ms Paramita Ayuningtyas (thanks to whom he has been pursuing his passion for classical literature). 
Iwo’s professional realms lie in English language teaching and testing, British English, culture and literature. He is also a big fan of Great Britain, British accent, formal and old-fashioned language as well as Oxford and Cambridge-published textbooks. An ex-pupil of Institut Français d’Indonésie, this Francophile possesses a zeal in the French language and French language assessment as well.
Having an active interest in modeling, Iwo enjoys Glee (where he thinks that he and Artie have some things in common), Masterchef and Next Top Model. His blog sandyiwo@blogspot.com is dedicated to literature in its entirety. Towering at 173 cm (5’8) tall, this model hopeful idolizes the ravishing Indo-Australian Nadya Hutagalung (with whom he has a few environment-caring traits in common), beautiful British Jade Parfitt and gorgeous Irish Stacey Haskins. Iwo’s ideal mental picture is the evening in the Ulm city in the past, looking out through a window, a piece of paper in front of him, a literary work on the left together with a nice cup of sweetened coffee. Iwo, looking forward to working within the education and modeling industries, remains and shall always do reachable on sandyiwo@yahoo.com.